Antiquity attractive find humanists renaissance study
Secondly, there was no doubt that Europe was a well-defined geographical reality. Beyond myth and geography, the age of the humanists also saw the birth of two unique projects for a united and unified Europe, seen as all the more urgent and necessary because of the rising Turkish threat in the Mediterranean, symbolised by the capture of Constantinople on 25 May Enea Silvio Piccolomini, the great humanist scholar and Pope from to under the name Pius II, launched a call for a crusade by the Papal Bull of 13 October , inviting all Christian princes to meet in Mantua to prepare for holy war.
This alone was considered capable of halting the Turkish advance and defending Christian Europe from the fury of an enemy of the faith viewed, in a climate of strong eschatological tensions, as the precursor of the antichrist. The pope thus dreamed of being at the head of a united coalition of Christian Europe, bringing together all Europeans behind a common cause in a Respublica christiana , a term first used by Pius II. This old dream of a crusade, updated for the fifteenth century, never came into being; the dream of a Europe united by faith would also evaporate in when Luther published his 95 theses in Wittenberg.
In the same context, for the same reasons, but in a different form and in open opposition to the papal project, another initiative for the construction of a united Europe was undertaken by the King of Bohemia George of Podiebrad Between and he proposed the creation of a political Europe of confederations where all European princes who so wished could unite their forces to repel the Turkish threat. For Podiebrad this Europe was to be a political Europe, a Europe built on an alliance between four nations: the Gallican nation, the Germanic nation, the Italian nation and the Spanish nation to which a fifth was added, the English nation.
While this project never came into being, it nevertheless led to the signing of several alliances, including the treaty between France and Bohemia signed on 16 July Spain forms the head, France the shoulders, and Germany the chest with Bohemia at the centre. Italy is represented by the arm and Sicily by the orb. Greece, meanwhile, is placed on the right-hand edge of the body, just opposite Asia.
Faced with the Ottoman threat, in a Europe torn apart by internal divisions, such stirrings of shared identity suggested, during the Renaissance, the possibility of a Europe shaped by an awareness of the cultural specificity of the Occident. The great discoveries begun by Christopher Columbus , Vasco da Gama and Fernando Magellan also contributed, albeit very gradually, to the formation of a European identity.
However, it is clear that this was by no means a general feeling and that this awareness often led Europeans to turn in on themselves. Most humanists, confronted by the realities of their world, in fact tended to cherish attachments to a sense of identity that was anything but European. Petrarch, for instance, said that he was above all Italian, as he was proud of the strong bonds of Italian culture in a politically fragmented Italy. The increasing strength of national sentiment and xenophobia makes it impossible to believe that everyone during the Renaissance felt European.
There are numerous examples. In , Coluccio Salutati, a humanist and chancellor of Florence, launched a virulent appeal not to let the voracious French seize hold of Italy.
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The passion of jealousy, which torments almost all husbands elsewhere, is wholly unknown to them … Oh! How different their customs are from our own. Erasmus of Rotterdam , the prince of the humanists, noted this lack of a European consciousness with much regret. The German is in disagreement with the Frenchman, and the Spaniard with both of them. If one can speak of Europe, therefore, one must first recognise that it is a notion which, for the humanists, above all encompassed the plurality of spatial-cultural realities.
When faced with these numerous dissonances, does it still make sense to speak of a Europe of the humanists? Yet there was a common dream which, between the middle ages and the early modern period spread on a European level: the dream of a Europe of wisdom, of knowledge and of reason, of a Europe called upon to become a new republic of letters, overcoming national divisions and particularistic identities.
Lecture Notes 4 - 15th Century Italian Art Humanism and Renaissance - StuDocu
The expression Respublica Litteraria appeared for the first time in the writings of the Italian humanist and politician Francesco Barbaro in a letter addressed to Poggio Bracciolini dated 6 July Closely associated with the rise of humanism in Renaissance Italy and Europe, it was seen as a vector of a dominant cultural model. Humanist thought, in all its plurality—literary, political, philosophical and artistic—sought to establish the canons of human perfection from a perspective that was at once ethical, aesthetic and social.
Humanism, fuelled by a deep conviction in the necessity of civilizational renewal, hoped for a return of antiquity, seen as essential for giving rise, in the spirit of universal vocation, to a new free, dignified man, master of his own destiny. The School of Athens painted by Raphael on the walls of the Stanza della Signatura in the Vatican between and encapsulates in a single image the performative fascination that the humanists had for the great scholars of the ancient world: gathered around Plato and Aristotle, who stand at centre stage, a kind of interdisciplinary conversation is taking place bringing together Socrates, Aeschines, Xenophon, Chrysippus, Zeno, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Archimedes and Ptolemy.
As such, a perfect knowledge and mastery of ancient languages opened readers to the truth of the ancient texts. He lived a more refined and sophisticated life as compared to Cosimo, he made Florence reach the heights of economic greatness like never before. The lower class had never felt so comfortable, protected and independent like they did under his administration.
Florence became the most important city-state and even the most beautiful amongst all of Europe during his reign, He funded a public art school, fostered the talent of Michelangelo, supported the brilliance of Da Vinci and flaunted the racy works of Botticelli. In this masterpiece, the artist actually painted members of the Medici family as the kneeling wise men! What could give the appearance of power more so than having a wise Medici kneeling and actually touching the feet of the Holy Child?
omihinucaq.tk It is believed that even though the arts flourished and commerce increased, Lorenzo did not pay much attention to his family bank, which saw a decline in its popularity and functioning. This outspoken clergyman condemned Lorenzo for his sinful taste in art, extravagance and his abuse of church power. Without the full force of their former fortune, the Medici line began to weaken. Savonarola had garnered a following since early , when he started preaching the worldliness and paganism of the Renaissance and demanded a return to simple faith.
Still, the Medici family was the most prominent during the Italian Renaissance because of their generous funding and patronage of the artists of that time who became famous worldwide.
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Notify me of new posts via email. Search for: Search. Share this:. Like this: Like Loading My Captain! Siena, which was a political ally of France, for example, retained a Gothic element to its art for much of the Renaissance. Certain conditions aided the development of the Renaissance style in Florence during this time period.
In the 15th century, Florence became a major mercantile center. The production of cloth drove their economy and a merchant class emerged.
Humanism , which had developed during the 14th century, remained an important intellectual movement that impacted art production as well. During the Early Renaissance, artists began to reject the Byzantine style of religious painting and strove to create realism in their depiction of the human form and space. During the Early Renaissance we also see important developments in subject matter, in addition to style. While religion was an important element in the daily life of people living during the Renaissance, and remained a driving factor behind artistic production, we also see a new avenue open to panting—mythological subject matter.
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While the tradition itself likely arose from cassone painting, which typically featured scenes from mythology and romantic texts, the development of mythological panel painting would open a world for artistic patronage , production, and themes. The period known as the High Renaissance represents the culmination of the goals of the Early Renaissance, namely the realistic representation of figures in space rendered with credible motion and in an appropriately decorous style.
The most well known artists from this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and Michelangelo. Their paintings and frescoes are among the most widely known works of art in the world. High Renaissance painting evolved into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the principles of High Renaissance, tended to represent elongated figures in illogical spaces. Modern scholarship has recognized the capacity of Mannerist art to convey strong, often religious, emotion where the High Renaissance failed to do so.
Humanism was an intellectual movement embraced by scholars, writers, and civic leaders in 14th century Italy. Humanism, also known as Renaissance Humanism, was an intellectual movement embraced by scholars, writers, and civic leaders in 14th- and earlyth-century Italy. The movement developed in response to the medieval scholastic conventions in education at the time, which emphasized practical, pre-professional, and scientific studies engaged in solely for job preparation, and typically by men alone. Humanists reacted against this utilitarian approach, seeking to create a citizenry who were able to speak and write with eloquence and thus able to engage the civic life of their communities.
Humanism introduced a program to revive the cultural—and particularly the literary—legacy and moral philosophy of classical antiquity. While Humanism initially began as a predominantly literary movement, its influence quickly pervaded the general culture of the time, re-introducing classical Greek and Roman art forms and contributing to the development of the Renaissance.